Woodworkers manufacture a variety of products such as cabinets and furniture, using wood, veneers, and laminates. They often combine and incorporate different materials into wood.
Woodworkers typically do the following:
- Understand detailed architectural drawings, schematics, shop drawings, and blueprints
- Prepare and set up machines and tooling for woodwork manufacturing
- Lift wood pieces onto machines, either by hand or with hoists
- Operate woodworking machines, including saws and milling and sanding machines
- Listen for unusual sounds or detect excessive vibration in machinery
- Ensure that products meet industry standards and project specifications, making adjustments as necessary
- Select and adjust the proper cutting, milling, boring, and sanding tools for completing a job
- Use hand tools to trim pieces or assemble products
Despite the abundance of plastics, metals, and other materials, wood products continue to be an important part of our daily lives. Woodworkers make wood products from lumber and synthetic wood materials. Many of these products, including most furniture, kitchen cabinets, and musical instruments, are mass produced. Other products are custom made from architectural designs and drawings.
Although the term “woodworker” may evoke the image of a craftsman who uses handtools to build ornate furniture, the modern woodworking trade is highly technical and relies on advanced equipment and highly skilled operators. Workers use automated machinery, such as computerized numerical control (CNC) machines, to do much of the work with great accuracy.
Even specialized artisans generally use CNC machines and a variety of power tools in their work. Much of the work is done in a high-production assembly line facility, but there is also some work that is customized and does not lend itself to being made on an assembly line.
Woodworkers set up, operate, and tend all types of woodworking machines, such as saws, milling machines, drill presses, lathes, shapers, routers, sanders, planers, and wood-fastening machines. Operators set up the equipment, cut and shape wooden parts, and verify dimensions, using a template, caliper, and rule. After the parts are machined, woodworkers add fasteners and adhesives and connect the parts to form an assembled unit. They also install hardware, such as pulls and drawer slides, and fit specialty products for glass, metal trims, electrical components, and stone. Finally, workers then sand, stain, and, if necessary, coat the wood product with a sealer or topcoats, such as a lacquer or varnish.
Many of these tasks are handled by different workers with specialized training.
The following are examples of types of woodworkers:
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters cut, shape, assemble, and make parts for wood products. They often design and create sets of cabinets that are customized for particular spaces. In some cases, their duties begin with designing a set of cabinets to specifications and end with installing the cabinets.
Furniture finishers shape, finish, and refinish damaged and worn furniture. They may work with antiques and must judge how to preserve and repair them. They also do the staining, sealing, and top coating at the end of the process of making wooden products.
Wood sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders specialize in operating specific pieces of woodworking machinery. They often operate CNC machines.
Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing, operate woodworking machines, such as drill presses, lathes, routers, sanders, and planers.
Woodworkers held about 202,700 jobs in 2012. About 83 percent worked in manufacturing industries.
The industries that employed the most woodworkers in 2012 were as follows:
|Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters||86,200|
|Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing||61,500|
|Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood||40,200|
Although many smaller shops employ a few workers, production factories can have as many as 2,000 employees.
Working conditions vary with the specific job duties. At times, workers have to handle heavy, bulky materials and may encounter noise and dust. As a result, they regularly wear hearing protection devices, goggles, and respirators or masks.
Injuries and Illnesses
Woodworkers are exposed to hazards such as harmful dust, chemicals, or fumes. Others may be exposed to excessive noise and must wear hearing protection devices.
Specifically, cabinet makers and bench carpenters have a higher rate of injuries and illnesses than the national average.
Most injuries involve sprains, back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hernia. These injuries or illnesses come from excessive amounts of awkward bending, reaching, twisting, and overexertion or repetition.
Most woodworkers are employed full time and work during regular business hours.
Although some entry-level jobs can be learned in less than 1 year, becoming fully proficient generally takes at least 3 years of on-the-job training. The ability to use computer-controlled machinery is becoming increasingly important.
Because of the growing sophistication of machinery, many employers are seeking applicants who have a high school diploma or the equivalent. People seeking woodworking jobs can enhance their employment prospects by completing high school and getting training in computer applications and math.
Some woodworkers obtain their skills by taking courses at technical schools or community colleges. Others attend universities that offer training in wood technology, furniture manufacturing, wood engineering, and production management. These programs prepare students for jobs in production, supervision, engineering, and management, and are becoming increasingly important as woodworking technology advances.
Education is helpful, but woodworkers are trained primarily on the job, where they learn skills from experienced workers. Beginning workers are given basic tasks, such as placing a piece of wood through a machine and grabbing the finished product at the end of the process.
As they gain experience, new woodworkers perform more complex tasks with less supervision. In about 1 year, they learn basic machine operations and job tasks. Becoming a skilled woodworker often takes 3 or more years. Skilled workers can read blueprints, set up machines, and plan work sequences.
Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Although not required, becoming certified can demonstrate competence and professionalism. It also may help a candidate advance in the profession. The Architectural Woodwork Institute (AWI) offers a national certificate program, which adds a level of credibility to the work of woodworkers. The Woodwork Career Alliance of North America also offers five progressive credentials.
Detail oriented. Woodworkers must pay attention to details in order to meet specifications and to keep themselves safe.
Dexterity. Woodworkers must make precise cuts with a variety of hand tools and power tools, so they need a steady hand and good hand-eye coordination.
Math skills. Knowledge of basic math and computer skills are important, particularly for those who work in manufacturing, in which technology continues to advance. Woodworkers need to understand basic geometry to visualize how the wood pieces will fit together to fabricate a three-dimensional object, such as a cabinet or piece of furniture.
Mechanical skills. Modern technology systems require woodworkers to be able to use robots, computers, and other programmable devices.
Physical stamina. The ability to endure long periods of standing and repetitious movements is crucial for woodworkers, who often stand all day performing many of the same functions.
Physical strength. Woodworkers must be strong enough to lift bulky and heavy pieces of wood, such as plywood.
Technical skills. Woodworkers must be able to understand and interpret design drawings and technical manuals for a range of products and machines.
The median hourly wage for woodworkers was $13.67 in May 2012. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.03 per hour, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $21.31 per hour.
Median hourly wages for woodworker occupations in May 2012 were as follows:
- $14.90 for cabinetmakers and bench carpenters
- $13.70 for furniture finishers
- $13.00 for woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing
- $12.59 for sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood
Most woodworkers are employed full time and work during regular business hours.
Employment of woodworkers is projected to grow 8 percent from 2012 to 2022, about as fast as the average for all occupations.
Employment growth will stem from greater demand for domestic wood products. In particular, the continuing need to repair and renovate residential and commercial properties will likely require more woodworkers.
Employment growth should be good for woodworkers who specialize in items used in renovation, such as moldings, cabinets, stairs, and windows. Firms that focus on custom woodwork should be able to compete against imports without the need to outsource jobs to other countries.
The increasing use of automated systems is expected to require more workers to operate and maintain the newer equipment in manufacturing facilities.
Woodworkers who know how to create and carry out custom designs on a computer will likely be in strong demand.
Those with advanced skills, including advanced math and the ability to interpret design drawings, should have the best job opportunities in manufacturing industries.
Those who can demonstrate leadership and problem-solving skills should also have the best job prospects.
Some job openings will result from the need to replace those who retire or leave the occupation for another job.
Although overall job opportunities should be good, employment in all woodworking specialties is highly sensitive to economic cycles. During economic downturns, woodworkers are subject to layoffs or reductions in hours.
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